The Nobel Prize for Chemistry will be awarded next year to a woman who was born in a village in India.
A year later, she will be hailed as the “first female Nobel Laureate”.
But the story of her birth, and her journey to the top of the chemistry world, is not so well known.
I am born and brought up in a remote village in north India.
My parents and grandparents were very poor, and my father had no education.
When I was young, I did not have a father, so my maternal grandmother was very supportive.
We moved to a big village in the south of India and after a few years, I became the first child to have a male relative.
That was in 1947.
I have always been the daughter of the village, my father being the village’s head.
It is my destiny to become a chemist.
In the next two years, the villagers had a major party and my mother was elected as their chief minister.
I became a full-time student, and I went to university at Oxford University.
In my studies, I realised I wanted to be a chemist and I wanted it to be at Oxford.
A Nobel Prize was a dream of mine.
But I also knew I had a lot of work to do.
I started working on the discovery of the chemical building blocks of life.
A year after I graduated, I went back to Oxford to complete my PhD. As a chemist, I would like to do more than just synthesise new compounds.
I want to understand the origins of life, the origin of the universe, and even how life came to be.
It was at Oxford that I discovered the structure of DNA, the chemical blueprint of the human body.
I was so excited that I was about to become the first woman to be awarded the Nobel prize in Chemistry.
But there was more to it.
My research was the first to show that DNA is a chemical building block, that it was made of a single molecule of carbon and hydrogen.
After this, I started studying proteins.
It was in the late 1970s, and this discovery, that was very exciting.
It gave me the confidence to go into the business of building synthetic DNA.
I had no idea how important this would be.
I didn’t know what to expect from the people who worked on this project.
In 1982, I got an email from the Nobel Committee, asking if I was interested in working on DNA.
At the time, the Committee had no female scientists on its board.
I thought, this is fantastic!
I got the job, and that’s when I started to get the feeling that I could do something with this.
I was a bit nervous at first, but it really helped me get into the groove.
So what is it about this molecule that makes DNA so useful?
DNA is the blueprint for all life.
It contains a huge amount of information, and the structure and the chemical elements that make up DNA make up the building blocks for life.
DNA is not just the blueprint of life: it’s also the structure for life itself.
What I was studying was the structure of a gene.
We had a few hundred nucleotides of DNA.
Every nucleotide is a protein.
DNA molecules are made up of four amino acids.
You have two bases that make it up.
The third and fourth are the nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen.
The nitrogen, oxygen and phosphorus are what give DNA its structure.
This protein is made of these four amino acid bases.
At the top end, there is the base that gives the protein its structure, and at the bottom end, is the DNA strand that holds the DNA and tells the cell what to do next.
Here, you can see the DNA helix.
Once the DNA has been formed, it can be copied and used to create new DNA molecules.
DNA has to be repaired.
And what happens when it is damaged?
The first thing that happens is that DNA strands break.
DNA ends are cut and the new DNA strand is pulled into the DNA, and then it gets pulled out again.
But the DNA itself is not damaged.
If you take DNA that’s been damaged, it’s just a single strand of DNA that is damaged.
DNA can be repaired by using the repair machinery in the DNA that comes with the cell.
Sometimes, if you have damaged DNA strands, the repair mechanism will make the DNA molecule more stable.
How does DNA repair itself?
DNA molecules are not really made up like proteins, but like a sort of scaffold that makes up the proteins.
All the DNA molecules have a very large number of repeating bases, called telomeres.
Telomeres are the stretches of DNA strands that are not broken but that are still in place.